10 08, 2017

How to Implement Lean Manufacturing?

By | August 10th, 2017|Lean Kaizen|0 Comments

Lean Manufacturing has become very popular in India & some countries in East Africa. however implementing Lean in right way requires deep understanding of concept and philosophy behind Lean. Most of the consultants and organisation go by the Tool Implementation way, where they select few popular tools like 5S, Cells, Kanban etc and implement. Certainly there will be lot of benefits from implementation of these tools but not in long term. Because lean is not just set of tools, its way of running your business. Lets understand different approaches for Lean Manufacturing Implementation.

  • Kaizen workshops approach
  • Hot Projects approach
  • Plant wide Lean tools Implementation Approach
  • Value stream Model Line approach
  • Hoshin Kanri Approach

Lets us understand Kaizen Workshop approach in detail:Kaizen workshop

One common approach to implement Lean Kaizen is strategy of the one week kaizen event. The kaizen event structure (a.k.a. kaizen workshop, rapid improvement workshop, lean event, rapid improvement event). Kaizen workshops to be conducted are decided based on outcome of an Initial assessment, where current state is analysed, problems & opportunities are identified, Potential savings are calculated and a roadmap for Kaizen workshops is created.

Following are some more details on phases of Kaizen workshop: 

1. Prepare in advance. Two to four weeks of advanced preparation for the workshop to define the scope of the problem, decide on a team, collect data on the current situation, decide what lean tools to use, and make logistic arrangements for the event. In some cases there is advanced purchase of tools, materials, or equipment that cannot be done in the lead time of the one-week workshop.

2. Conduct workshop:

  • Monday: Give an overview of lean Kaizen and teach any special Kaizen tools needed for that week. Begin to collect data on the current process in the afternoon.
  • Tuesday: Complete the current state analysis, collect data, draw a process flow map, draw walk pattern on layout, develop Standardized Work Combination Tables, etc., and develop ideas for the improved state. Perhaps detail the future state by the end of the day (Plan).
  • Wednesday: First pass implementation (Do). It may be in one pilot, to try it first, or full implementation right away. Sometimes this starts by clearing the floor of the current process, painting the floor, then moving equipment back in the new layout.
  • Thursday: Evaluate process (Check), improve (Act), and keep going through Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) until you have a good approach.
  • Friday: Develop a presentation for management. Present to management. Celebrate. (Often the event ends after a lunch celebration.)

Follow-up to the workshop. There are always items that could not be done during the week, which are put together as a homework list sometimes called a “kaizen action plan.” An action plan for what, who, and when is prepared during the one-week workshop, and follow-up is needed to be sure the items get done.

10 08, 2017

Role of Planned Maintenance Team in Autonomous Maintenance

By | August 10th, 2017|Lean Kaizen, TPM|0 Comments

TPM Autonomous Maintenance

Planned Maintenance teams in TPM Program generally consists of team members from maintenance team where is Autonomous maintenance team have more of production team members as objective of autonomous maintenance is to create equipment competent operator. however to train operators to identify & correct abnormalities on their machines, Planned maintenance teams should support them. Following are roles of Planned Maintenance teams in Autonomous Maintenance steps

Autonomous Maintenance Step 1:

  • To explain machine function and mechanical functions and define basic conditions – normal and abnormal
  • Guidance for Identification of cleaning, inspection and lubrication items and Cleaning tools management
  • Abnormality identification training – and teach about red/white tags
  • Teach how to develop One Point lessons
  • Help to dis-cover difficult to access areas
  • Inspection while cleaning –teaching this to operators.
  • Training the operators on moving parts, functional inspection of the rotating mechanisms, to find out abnormalities and making operators judge pass-fail criteria.

Autonomous Maintenance Step 2:

  • Assist and implement countermeasures for sources of contamination by fabricating
  • carrying out trials, installing and improving guards etc. This will include activities such as:
  • Make machine easy to clean, lubricate and tighten – by operator with their involvement.
  • Conducting WHY-WHY analysis of breakdown and if the reason being lack of Autonomous Maintenance activities then fill the skill gap.
  • Prepare localized guards & Arrest leakages
  • Removal of red/pink tags – explain and do.
  • Rectifying the major abnormalities, which cannot be done by operators.
  • To train the operators for developing, with one point lessons.
  • To train operators to conduct daily autonomous maintenance activities safely.
  • Attend to suggestions made by operators in form of countermeasures by AM team that they couldn’t implement themselves.

Autonomous Maintenance Step 3:

  • Preparation of visual control – to make the changes in equipment including auxiliary units so that they are easy to clean, access, inspect and lubricate.(Re-tighten) make the equipment ‘visually controllable’ by operators
  • Decide frequency for Cleaning, lubricating, tightening, making the method to do it and decide who will do what. Then teach that person ‘How’ to do.
  • Provide the right kind of tools near the machine for operator to use. Similarly provide appropriate tools to maintenance for their work
  • Prepare Breakdown sheet on which all breakdowns will be recorded and analysed
  • Correct abnormalities that are identified through inspection.
  • Establish standards for lubrication and monitoring pressure/temperatures
  • Establish standards for cleaning
9 08, 2017

Losses addressed by Kobetsu Kaizen

By | August 9th, 2017|Lean Kaizen, TPM|0 Comments

Kobetsu Kaizen (Focused Improvement) is first Pillar of Total Productive Maintenance is used to address non equipment

TPM: Total Productive Maintenance

related losses and losses which can not be addressed by other pillars. Kobetsu Kaizen means Focused Improvement and uses the approach of Root cause analysis to address the losses. Data on all non equipment related losses is collected and prioritised through Pareto analysis to select the highest loss to be addressed first.

Following is list of various losses addressed by Kobetsu Kaizen:

  • Set-up and Tool change loss (Approach of SMED is used to address this loss)
  • Start-up loss
  • Minor stoppages
  • Reduced speed
  • Management Loss (Lack of material, operators and any other issues which can be resolved by management only)
  • Operating motion loss
  • Line organization loss
  • Measurement and adjustment loss
  • Tools, jigs and consumables loss
  • Yield loss
8 08, 2017

Benefits of Value Stream Mapping

By | August 8th, 2017|Lean Kaizen|0 Comments

Value stream mapping also known as Material & Information flow mapping in Toyota Motors, is more than a tool to draw pictures that highlight waste. It helps us see linked chains of processes and create Future state of a Lean value steam. Key philosophy of Value stream mapping is how to approach improvement and to improve overall material and information flow.

Value Stream maps also provide a “common language” and understanding so that everyone has the same vision for Lean or Kaizen Implementation. Like a road map, the value stream mapping tool shows the road for the Kaizen or Lean journey, but it is only a guide. It does not detail what you  will find along the way in your Kaizen journey. You must have a thorough understanding of the basic concepts and how to create processes that adhere to them. This is when it is very helpful to have someone who has previously made the journey. They not only know where they’re going, but they can save countless hours otherwise wasted by taking wrong turns!

Some of the common objectives used from value stream mapping are:

  • Short lead-time from customer order to completion and delivery of the product.
  • Connected processes with continuous flow and pull of materials.
  • Simplified information flow within the value stream that comes from internal customers (the following process).
  • A clear awareness of the customer requirement (the “voice of the customer”). In a pull environment, the customer (next operation) dictates what is done and when. The voice of the customer should provide: Required rate (TAKT time), Required volume (quantity), Required model mix and Required sequence of productionValue Stream Mapping
6 08, 2017

Understading use of Kamishibai boards

By | August 6th, 2017|Lean Kaizen|0 Comments

Kamishibai Daily Work ManagementKamishibai boards are great tools to help you manage day to day business activities. Whilst computerised task management tools are great, their lack of visibility to everyone away from the computer screen can make it difficult to understand what progress has been made. In their simplest form a Kamishibai board is a red and green ‘T’ card system where the red side of the card shows the task is incomplete and the green side of the card show that the task has been completed. The board always starts with all of the red sides visible and as tasks are completed the cards are turned around. If your management style includes ‘walking the floor’ to find out what is going on, then a Kamishibai board will make your working day a lot easier. As you walk past an area that has one of these boards then you should be able to see a wave of green cards forming. It’s very easy to see one of two things; either that the board is not being used (so you can give the people responsible a nudge), or that progress is being made. There is often a concern with managers that people will turn the cards over prematurely just to give the right impression. This can happen, but thankfully people who do this trip themselves up very easily. One case that is vivid in my memory is the manufacturing company who had a task related to the checking of oil at the start of every shift. The cards were turned over religiously and then the machine seized! It was very easy for the manager to work out who had been trying to fiddle the system… the system was adhered to from that point onwards! A Kamishibai board is simply a card form of your routines of working.

4 08, 2017

How to Conduct Lean Kaizen Event | Kaizen Workshops?

By | August 4th, 2017|Lean Kaizen|0 Comments

Gemba Kaizen WorkshopA Lean or Kaizen Event, also referred to as a Kaizen Workshop, Kaizen Blitz, Breakthrough Kaizen, or Rapid Improvement Event, is a powerful tool for accelerating improvement. It’s a structured team activity designed to remove waste and implement improvements in a defined work area or process, all within a few days.  Kaizen Events are tactical, focusing on how to execute the strategy, utilizing the people closest to the work.

Kaizen Events solve problems quickly and succeed in consistently delivering sustainable results. The approach relies on cross-functional teamwork, implementing improvements in real time, and learning by doing. A familiar Chinese proverb sums up the kaizen philosophy: Tell me and I’ll forget, show me and I may remember, involve me and I’ll understand. The Kaizen Event is characterized by a number of attributes that, when followed, enable teams to consistently outperform established expectations, and make this improvement approach fundamentally different from traditional models. Following are 6 key characteristics of running successful Kaizen events or Kaizen Workshops.

  1. Value stream driven: Linking your Kaizen Events to a future state value stream map and implementation plan enables a holistic view of customer value and minimizes the risk of sub-optimization
  2.  Total Employee Involvement:  the primary members on Kaizen Teams are the people who are working the process daily. In most settings, the people doing the work know what needs to change, but traditional improvement processes have not provided them with the proper platform to participate in actualizing their ideas. Encouraging teams to seek the wisdom of ten rather than the knowledge of one promotes inclusive decision making and, as a result, more innovative and sustainable solutions. An important aspect of the kaizen philosophy is to use measurable objectives and a learn-do model to develop teamwork and build an improvement skillset in your front-line workers, which further increases organizational flexibility and responsiveness to changing demands.
  3. Cross Functional Teamwork:  Kaizen Events leverage the power of involving upstream suppliers, downstream customers, and subject matter experts, as well as objective “outside eyes” in problem solving.  Leveraging the perspectives and experience of a cross-functional team has many benefits. First, it dissolves interpersonal and interdepartmental tension that may exist prior to a Kaizen Event, in large part because individuals and departments don’t understand one another’s needs and don’t regularly solve problems together. Working on a defined problem provides everyone with a full understanding of how the process works and what the true needs are. From here, the team generates the best solutions, strengthening working relationships in the process
  4. Short duration: Kaizen Events usually last for two to five days. While this may seem like a long time to sequester people from their normal duties, it’s actually a short time period when compared with the length of time the defined process problems have typically existed and will likely continue to exist without the Kaizen Event. Also, the amount of work that’s accomplished and the learning that occurs in only two to five days far exceeds that which is experienced in most traditional improvement activities and training programs

  5. Waste elimination: Kaizen Events place greater emphasis on eliminating non-value adding activities than improving speed in performing value-adding (VA) activities. You want to eliminate the eight wastes embedded in the work sequence that are causing the greatest pain and that will produce the most immediate results. This does not mean that implementing improvements to accelerate VA activities is off limits—it just means that optimizing value-added work is not the primary focus for Kaizen Events

  6. Built-in sustainability: Change is difficult, and to achieve sustainability, we must confront our human tendency of returning to the way we’ve always done things. Kaizen Events address this issue in several ways: 1) thorough current state analysis and clear improvement objectives; 2) total employee involvement; 3) real-time leadership and peer buy-in regarding changes; and 4) the development and execution of a solid Sustainability Plan

 

 

4 08, 2017

Steps of reducing changeover time through SMED

By | August 4th, 2017|Lean Kaizen|0 Comments

SMED stepsChangeover means a certain kind of set-up that we must make before beginning a different set of operations. Often, a changeover’s set-up procedure involves rearranging things. Changeover can be changing of dies & tools, Change of standard parameters, change of parts for assembly. Changeover time is loss of capacity while shifting from one product to another product. Many factories still believe in Obsolete idea of  “economic lot size.” Economic lot sizes are thought to be whatever lot size helps to minimize the sum of changeover costs and inventory costs. Factories traditionally have tried to keep their lot sizes as close to the ideal “economic lot size” as possible. These money-saving efforts probably had some value during the bygone days of limited product variety and large-scale mass production. However, today the trend is for diverse product models and small-lot production with short delivery deadlines. These radically different circumstances require a new approach to economic lot sizes. The conventional idea of economic lot size assumes that inventory costs and changeover costs are constant; but changeover costs can vary significantly. Moreover, changeover improvements can drastically reduce the changeover costs.

Technique of SMED (Single Minute Exchange of Die) has helped many organisations to reduce changeover times. First of all we must understand how to calculate changeover time.

Changeover time begins when the current processing task is finished and ends when the next processing task produces a defect-free. To understand concept of SMED, we must understand Internal & External Activities. Internal Activities are those activities that can be done only when the equipment is not running. External Activities are those activities which can be performed even when the equipment is running

There are 6 steps in SMED approach to reduce changeover time.

  1. Measure Total Job Time
  2. Separate Internal & External Tasks
  3. Convert Internal Tasks to External Tasks wherever possible
  4. Eliminate Internal Waste
  5. Eliminate External Waste
  6. Standardise & Maintain Best Practice
3 08, 2017

What is Leader Standard Work?

By | August 3rd, 2017|Lean Kaizen|0 Comments

Standard work for leaders, the engine of lean kaizen management, is the highest leverage tool in the lean kaizen management system. Leader standard work provides a structure and routine that helps leaders shift from a sole focus on results to a dual focus on process plus results. This change in focus is crucial to the success of a lean operation. Moreover, it is perhaps the most difficult thing to accomplish in a leader’s personal conversion from batch and queue to lean thinking. Leader standard work aids this conversion by translating the focus on process, an abstract concept, into concrete expectations for the leader’s own specific job performance. Just as standard work elements in a production workstation provide a clear and unambiguous statement of expectations, the same is true of standard work for leaders.

Leaders’ work is rarely timed this closely. Even so, it is important to pay attention to the total work content called for in leaders’ standard work to be sure they can perform it effectively and thoroughly.  Leaders’ standard work includes coverage of visual controls and executing the daily accountability process. Follow leader standard work and you maintain the principal elements of the lean management system. Maintain the lean management system, and you maintain the health of your lean production system and enjoy its results.

Leader standard work includes some tasks that are specifically sequenced to happen at indicated times. Others occur once a day, once a week, or as the need arises. Some tasks repeat several times every day. Leaders’ standard work differs markedly from operator standard work in one important respect.Leaders should have their standard work with them virtually all the time, whether on a clipboard, printed on a card, in a daily planner, or in a digital device. The leader should note completion of the indicated tasks on the standard work form.

With leader standard work, the lean management system becomes process-dependent, not person-dependent. One benefit is continuity of basic practices across changes in incumbents, which minimizes variability that might destabilize the production process. But more important is a second benefit is that leader standard work quickly allows an organization to raise the game of the existing leadership staff, or highlight those unable to make the transition. Leader standard work does this by presenting a clearly stated recipe—the standards for expected behaviors for leaders in a newly lean environment.

Leader Standard Work

2 08, 2017

Problem Solving needs simple thinking!

By | August 2nd, 2017|Lean Kaizen|0 Comments

An engineer in a car manufacturing company designs a world class car. The owner is impressed with the outcome and praised him a lot. While trying to bring out the car from the manufacturing area to the showroom, they realised that the car is few inches taller than the entrance. The engineer felt bad that he didn’t notice this one before creating the car. The owner was amazed on how to take it outside of the manufacturing area. The painter said that they can bring out the car and there will be a few scratches on top of the car which could be touched up later on. The engineer said that they can break the entrance, take the car out, and later re-do it. The owner was not convinced with any ideas and felt like it is a bad sign to break or scratch

A Watchman was observing all the drama & slowly approached the owner. He wanted to give an idea if they had no problem. They wondered what this guy would tell them that the experts could not give. The watchman said “The car is only a few inches taller than the entrance so, Simply release the air in the tyre, the height of the car will sink and can be easily taken out”…

Everyone clapped!!!

Don’t analyse the problems only from an expert point of view alone.

There is always a layman’s outlook that gives an alternate solution at a given point of time…

1 08, 2017

Right mindset: Key to get results from Lean Kaizen Implementation

By | August 1st, 2017|Lean Kaizen|0 Comments

Right Mindset

Having right mindset is ket to get results from Lean Kaizen Implementation. Leaders need to have right mindset to have maximum benefits from Kaizen / Lean Implementation program.

Lean thinking starts with the customer and works back from there, defining any activity that doesn’t add value for the customer as waste. The goal of the lean organisation is to strive constantly to deliver value to the customer in the shortest possible time through the relentless elimination of waste, variability and inflexibility. Certain ideas are common to all lean companies, and contribute to what we might call the lean mindset.

  1. DONT THINK BIG; THINK SMALL AND FLEXIBLE: One of the goals of a lean transformation is to drive down lead times to allow a company to respond quickly to its customers’ changing demands. This involves designing both core processes and the organisational structure to create flow. For executives schooled in the guiding principle of scale economies – namely, using expensive equipment to process large batches in order to drive down unit cost – such an approach may seem perverse. A lean mindset views common problems in a very different light. Think about boarding a flight. Where there is no direct gangway access, big buses are used to transport passengers in batches from the terminal building to the plane. You have to wait in the lounge for the bus to arrive, wait on the bus for the last passenger to get on and then queue on the tarmac to board the plane. The operating system is characterised by stagnation rather than flow. Now let’s consider how we might apply a lean mindset to tackle passengers’ frustration. If more journeys were made with smaller buses, waiting time would be reduced. This would incur higher capital investment and a heavier salary burden, but substantially increase value to passengers through better service.
  2. THE FRONT LINE IS WHERE THE VALUE GETS ADDED: When you go to a supermarket, you want to find good products quickly and pay for them without queuing for too long. If you can’t find something, you need a friendly member of staff to show you where it is. As a customer, you don’t care how many deliveries were made last night, or what training schemes the till operators have been on, or what key performance indicators the retailer tracks. For sure, the supermarket may need all these things to deliver value to you, but they don’t form part of  your shopping experience, or your perception of value. Obvious, perhaps – but managers often have difficulty accepting the implications. They may have to adjust their own roles and the way they allocate their time between different tasks in order to ensure that front-line operations run smoothly and value is added at the customer interface.

  3. EVERYONE IN THE ORGANISATION NEEDS TO UNDERSTAND HOW HIS OR HER ACTIONS CONTRIBUTE TO BUSINESS GOALS:  Consider a company that has always operated with a high level of overtime. Because of falling demand, the business no longer needs this expensive additional capacity. Employees who have become used to the extra income will need to understand the business reasons for withdrawing it before they can accept the change. The withdrawal of overtime will need to be offset by some other perceived benefit such as job security. Managers must be transparent, not only to demonstrate the need for change but also to earn trust and help align the interests of individual employees with those of the company. Such alignment forms the necessary basis for employees to develop a lean mindset and take on the extra responsibilities that a lean system demands.

  4. THE ROOT CAUSES OF PROBLEMS NEED TO BE ADDRESSED, NOT JUST THE SYMPTOMS: In unstable operating systems, as we have seen, people spend most of their time reacting to problems. Over time, they become adept firefighters, their behaviour is rewarded, and firefighting becomes part of the culture. In a lean environment, by contrast, problems are not tolerated. Instability is anathema to a lean mindset. Any source of loss is pursued back to its root causes and designed out to prevent recurrence. At Toyota, any problem is brought to light as quickly as possible so that it can be resolved there and then. Employees are obliged to stop an entire car production line if they detect a fault. The root causes must be resolved before production resumes.

  5. A PROBLEM IS AN OPPORTUNITY TO IMPROVE, NOT TO BLAME: A regime based on punishment quickly becomes oppressive and invites rebellion and subversion. Children who are humiliated if they admit to mistakes soon learn it’s safer to keep quiet and pretend nothing has happened. It’s much the same in the workplace. Making an example of people who do the wrong thing doesn’t work for long; employees will simply decide to keep their heads down and avoid being exposed. Worse, they are likely to hide problems and present everything in a positive light. This makes it impossible to recognise and resolve problems as they arise. The consequence will be a culture of denial in which employees are only partly engaged in what they do and hold back from contributing to improvements. As they relentlessly reduce the levels of waste in an organisation, lean improvement efforts invariably unearth problems. The challenge is to welcome these problems as they emerge, and then find ways to resolve them.

New mindsets drive new behaviours thus new actions. So having Right Lean Mindset is the Key to start Kaizen journey!

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