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3 04, 2018

Understanding Chronic Losses in TPM

By | 2018-04-03T13:51:30+00:00 April 3rd, 2018|TPM|0 Comments

Equipment failures and defects appear in two ways: as sporadic or chronic losses. Sporadic loss­es indicate sudden, often large deviations from the norm (current performance and quality lev­els). Chronic losses, on the other hand, indicate smaller, frequent deviations that gradually have been accepted as normal.

Sporadic losses, as the name implies, occur suddenly and infrequently. Typically, they result from a single cause that is relatively easy to identify. Also, because cause-and-effect relation­ships in sporadic losses are fairly clear, corrective measures are usually easy to formulate. For example, quality defects may arise when a jig has become abraded to a point where it no longer supports the required precision. Or a spindle may suddenly vibrate excessively, causing unacceptable dimensional variations in the product.

Chronic Losses on other hand, live up to their name by resisting a wide variety of corrective measures. Chronic losses require Innovative & Breakthrough measures that restore the mechanism or component to its original state. In nearly every cause, countermeasures done using Traditional approach for Chronic losses may bring temporary relief to the problem.

There are two types of Chronic loss:

  • The problem is produced by a single cause, but the cause varies from one occurrence to the next: Suppose for a given problem there are ten potential causes, A through J. Each time the prob­lem occurs, the cause is different. Sometimes it may be A, sometimes C, or D, and so on. Consequently, measures focused on only one specific cause (A, for example) cannot control the problem.
  • The problem is produced by a combination of causes, which also varies from one occurrence to the next: In some cases a combination of multiple and overlapping causes generates the problem. To make matters worse, each time the problem occurs, a different combination of factors may be involved. Today it may be factors A, B, and C; tomorrow A, C, G, and H.

Chronic losses persist for another reason. Even when people understand the nature of chronic loss, they continue to use a flawed problem-solving approach. Three types of errors are common in chronic loss analysis:

  • Phenomena are insufficiently stratified and analyzed.
  • Some factors related to individual phenomena are overlooked.
  • Abnormalities hidden in individual factors are not addressed

Dealing with Chronic losses require advance level technique in Total Productive Maintenance (TPM). Technique is known as PM (Phenomenon Mechanism) Analysis.

9 03, 2018

Importance of OEE in TPM

By | 2018-04-09T07:52:05+00:00 March 9th, 2018|TPM|0 Comments

Overall equipment effectiveness (OEE) is a key measurement in the improvement approach called Total Productive Maintenance (TPM). Before you begin learning about OEE, it is useful to  understand a little bit about TPM. TPM is a companywide approach for improving the effectiveness and longevity of machines. It is key to lean manufacturing because it attacks major wastes in production operations. Developed origi­nally to help a supplier meet the stringent requirements of the Toyota Production System,

TPM is used today in companies around the world to improve the capability of their equipment. TPM has a number of waste-reduction goals, including equipment restoration and maintenance of standard operating conditions. TPM methods also improve equipment systems, operating procedures, and maintenance and design processes to avoid future problems. The main strategies used in TPM are often referred to as “pillars” that support the smooth operation of the plant.

The overall equipment effectiveness measure is important to many of the TPM pillars, but is probably most important to the first four pillars in the figure. This is because these pillars can directly influence OEE through daily operations, maintenance, or improvement activities.

Manufacturing companies are in business to make money, and they make money by adding value to materials to make products the customers want. Most companies use machines to add value to the products. To add value effectively, it is important to run the machines effectively, with as little waste as possible. Overall equipment effectiveness is a measurement used in TPM to indicate how effectively machines are running.

What do we mean by overall equipment effectiveness?

Many people are familiar with the idea of” efficiency,” which usually reflects the quantity of parts a machine or a person can produce in a certain time. OEE is different from efficiency in several ways. A machine’s overall effectiveness includes more than the quantity of parts it can produce in a shift. When we measure overall equipmcnt effectiveness, we account for efficiency as one factor:

Availability: a comparison of the potential operating time and the time in which the machine is actually making products.

Performance: a comparison of the actual output with what the machine should be producing in the same time.

Quality: a comparison of the number of products made and the number of products that meet the customer’s specifications.

When you multiply performance, availability, and quality, you get the overall equipment effectiveness, which is expressed as a percent­age. OEE gives a complete picture of the machine’s “health”­not just how fast it can make parts, but how much the potential output was 1imited clue to lost availability or poor quality. When you multiply performance, availability, and quality, you get the overall equipment effectiveness, which is expressed as a percent­age. OEE gives a complete picture of the machine’s “health”­not just how fast it can make parts, but how much the potential output was 1imited clue to lost availability or poor quality

12 02, 2018

TPM in Filling Lines

By | 2018-04-09T08:21:27+00:00 February 12th, 2018|Lean Kaizen|0 Comments

First step is to measure the OEE (Overall Equipment Effectiveness) accurately and understand the losses. All Major losses should be selected for improvement project. Key methodology for OEE improvement is concept of TPM. TPM has 8 pillars and 4 pillars (Kobetsu Kaizen, Autonomous Maintenance, Planned Maintenance and Education & Training) must be implemented at time of starting the implementation.

Autonomous maintenance aims at creating equipment competent operator who can take care of his / her machine. Objective of autonomous maintenance is to prevent forced deterioration by detecting and correcting the Abnormalities on machine. Use of Auotnomous maintenance is very effective in reduction of breakdonws, minor stoppages & speed losses.

Another very effective TPM tool for filling lines is SMED (Single minute exchange of Die) to reduce changeover times. Changeover times can be reduced by as much as 90% using SMED technique effectively.

Systematic implementation of TPM can result in significant improvement in OEE of filling lines.

5 02, 2018

Benefits of 5S (Five S)

By | 2018-04-06T08:15:39+00:00 February 5th, 2018|Lean Kaizen|0 Comments

Companies implementing 5S experience many benefits from implementing the five pillars of 5S, such as increasing product diversity, raising quality, lowering costs, encouraging reliable deliveries, promoting safety, building customer confidence, and promoting corporate growth. Following are key benefits achieved from 5S implementation

Benefit 1. Zero Changeovers Bring Product Diversification: To remain competitive companies must reduce changeover time to zero, increase changeover frequency, and become more adaptive to product diversification. 5S (Five S) can help reduce changeover time by reducing searching time and raising overall operating efficiency.

Benefit 2. Zero Defects Bring Higher Quality: Defects result from many causes, including attaching the wrong parts and using the wrong jig. Sort and Set in Order prevent these kinds of errors. Further, keeping production equipment clean reduces equipment-operation errors and enables faster retooling. These and other effects of 5S implementation all add up to fewer defects.

Benefit 3. Zero Waste Brings Lower Costs: Factories and offices are virtual storehouses of waste. 5S imple­mentation can help eliminate the following types of waste:

  • In-process and warehouse inventory
  • the use of excessive amounts of space for storage
  • stand-by waste while waiting for equipment to transport items
  • searching waste, when necessary items are hard to find
  • motion waste, in side-stepping poorly located equipment and supplies

Benefit 4. Zero Delays Bring Reliable Deliveries: Factories that lack thorough 5S implementation tend to produce defects no matter what they do to prevent them. Deadlines whiz by while everyone is busy reworking defective products. It is difficult to meet delivery deadlines in the face of problems like wasteful motion and too many errors and defects. When these problems are eliminated, deliveries become more reliable

Benefit 5. Zero Injuries: Promote Safety Injuries can be expected when items are left in walkways, when stock is piled high in storage areas, or when equipment is covered with grime, cutting shavings, or oil.

Benefit 6. Zero Breakdowns Bring Better Equipment Availability: When daily maintenance tasks are integrated with daily cleaning tasks, operators notice problems before they cause a breakdown. In this way, equipment is more consistently ready for use. Clean, well-maintained equipment breaks down less frequently and is also easier to diagnose and repair when breakdowns do occur.

Benefit 7. Zero Complaints Bring Greater Confidence and Trust: Factories that practice the five pillars are virtually free of defects and delays. This means they are also free of customer complaints about product quality.

  • Products from a neat and clean workshop are defect-free
  • Products from a neat and clean workshop cost less to make
  • Products from a neat and clean workshop arrive on time
  • Products from a neat and clean workshop are safe.

Benefit 8. Zero Red Ink Brings Corporate Growth: Companies cannot grow without the trust of customers. The five pillars provide a strong base upon which to build customer trust and loyalty. Therefore factories with a solid 5S foundation are more likely to grow

16 01, 2018

What is TPM and why it is important?

By | 2018-04-09T07:54:33+00:00 January 16th, 2018|Lean Kaizen, TPM|0 Comments

TPM means productive maintenance (activities in which all workers of a corporation are required to participate) and stands for total productive maintenance.

  • T stands for “Total”
  • P stands for “Productive”
  • M stands for “Maintenance”

Necessity of TPM and why TPM is required now?

The economic environment surrounding corporations becomes even more severe and total elimination of waste is required for the survival of the corporation. Therefore, wastes generated due to the failure shutdown of facilities which have been built with huge investment and wastes such as defective products should be absolutely eliminated.

Requirements for product quality become even more stringent and not even one defective product should be allowed. Quality-assured delivery of total quantity is now taken for granted.

The small-lot production of various kinds of products and shortening of production lead time have been strongly required to meet diversified customer needs. That is to say, TPM to reduce the 8 major equipment losses to zero has been recognized as necessary for corporate survival.

TPM has been developed based on the PM (preventive maintenance or productive maintenance) concept and methodology introduced from the U.S.A.

  • Preventive Maintenance (PM: 1951 ~) can be said to be a kind of physical  check-up of equipment and also a kind of preventive medicine for the  equipment. Just as the human life expectancy has been expanded by the  progress in preventive medicine to prevent human suffering from disease, the plant equipment service life can be prolonged by preventing premature  equipment failure.
  • Corrective Maintenance (CM: 1957 ~) is a system in which the concept to  prevent equipment failures has been further expanded to be applied to the  improvement of equipment so that equipment failure can be eliminated  (improving the reliability) or equipment can be easily maintained (improving maintainability).
  • Maintenance Prevention (MP: :1960 ~) is an activity to design the  equipment and line to be maintenance-free. As the ultimate goal of the equipment and line keep them completely maintenance-free, every effort should be made to try to achieve the ultimate ideal condition of “what the  equipment and the line must be.” All these activities to improve equipment
  • !n 1971, Nippon Denso Co., Ltd first introduced and successfully implemented TPM in Japan.  The won the PM Excellent Plant Award for their activities. This was the beginning of TPM in Japan. Since then, TPM has spread throughout Japan, especially in the Toyota group.

TPM aims at

  1. Establishing. a corporate culture that will maximize production system effectiveness,
  2. Organizing a “genba-geributsu” system to prevent losses and achieve such “reduction-to-zero” targets as “zero-accidents”, “zero-defects” and “zero-breakdowns” in the entire production system life-cycle,
  3. Involving all functions of an organization including production, development, sales and management,
  4. Involving every member of an organization, from top management to front-line operators, and 5. Achieving zero losses through the activities of overlapping small groups.
5 10, 2017

Cellular Manufacturing with Machines

By | 2017-10-27T08:22:27+00:00 October 5th, 2017|Lean Kaizen|0 Comments

The concept of a Cellular Manufacturing  applies to processes involving machines as well as to manual assembly, with improvement opportunities of the same magnitude but different challenges. Cellular Manufacturing is a set of collocated, physically linked machines performing a common sequence of process steps for a family of items and run by a team of multi skilled operators that controls the release of work to the first step in the sequence. Unlike manual assembly, the work done by machines cannot be rebalanced at will, and the cell’s capacity is limited by that of its bottleneck. 100% utilization of all the machines in a cell is usually impossible, and utilization metrics in this case are more relevant for the cell as a whole than for the machines in it. Cell layouts aim to facilitate the flow of workpieces and the movements of operators while providing the required clearances for maintenance access to the machines. As a result, machines are closely packed and at crooked angles to one another, as opposed the traditional, facilities-driven neat rows.

Cellular Manufacturing with machines can be defined as:

Collocated machines. A set of collocated, physically linked machines. A common sequence of process steps performed on these machines for a family of partsCellular manufcturing

Team of multi skilled operators. A team of multifunction operators circulating between and attending to all the machines, moving, and keeping records.

Autonomous pacing. The team controls the release of work to the first step in the sequence.

Essential features of any manufacturing cell are as follows:

Materials flows: Product units move through a sequence of steps without backtracking or iterations.

Production operators are surrounded by machines. The product units flow around the operator work area, without ever crossing it. Each operator usually attends to more than one machine, and these machines are of different types.

Product size: Products up to a particular size only can be produced inside the cells. Large products are very difficult produce in cells and generally produced on moving lines

Number of operations: The cells in the example perform a handful of operations. Provided each operator performs multiple operations, the concept can be stretched to 20 distinct operations, but not 50 or 100.

Number of operators. The examples have no more than three operators working in a cell. There can be more, but that is rare at least in pure machining or fabrication cells. Where some assembly is involved, there can be as many as eight, or even ten, but a production line with 50 operators is definitely not a cell.

Station layout: The machines are laid out so that the operator workstations of successive machines are as close as possible, and this design goal overrides almost every other consideration.

Density: Machines in cells are much more closely packed than in the classical layouts. Even after allowing for maintenance access from the back of the machines, the conversion of a machine shop into cells typically frees up 30% of the floor space

27 09, 2017

How to make TPM Implementation Plan

By | 2017-10-27T07:07:34+00:00 September 27th, 2017|Lean Kaizen|0 Comments

TPM is about maximising the overall effectiveness of equipment through the people who operate and maintain that equipment. In order to provide the essential link between equipment and people it is essential to identify a clear set of phases and steps which together make up the TPM improvement plan.

There are three phases of the TPM Implementation Plan:

The measurement cycle, which assesses the present effectiveness of the equipment and provides a baseline for the measurement of future improvement.  Only after understanding the current situation of Asset efficiency, right action plan can be generated. Many organisations may not have good data collection system before starting TPM Implementation. This current OEE level must be estimated based on designed capacity vs actual good output every month. After understanding the current approximate level of OEE, a data collection system must be established to measure OEE on a daily basis.  Excel templates can be used to calculate OEE initially and investment in any OEE software must be done only after OEE is fully understood by the shop floor staff and data collection on excel based systems has been stabilised.

Measurement of  6 big OEE losses is very important before TPM implementation can be started. Only after assessment of the losses, right TPM pillars can be chosen for starting TPM implementation

The condition cycle, which establishes the present condition of the equipment and identifies the areas for improvement and future asset care. This cycle covers assessing the current situation of equipments through observations and audits. Each and every component of the equipment is assessed against various parameters to understand the current condition. Next step in condition cycle is to start planning for improvements in equipment based on assessed situation. if planning is done well, lot of time can be saved during repairs and problem correction work

The problem prevention cycle, which moves equipment effectiveness forward along the road to world-class performance. this is most important cycle of TPM implementation and covers establishing a root cause analysis system to continuously work on identification, correction and prevention of all the causes resulting in loss of equipment efficiency


19 09, 2017

Steps of Change Management

By | 2017-10-27T08:08:16+00:00 September 19th, 2017|Lean Kaizen|0 Comments

Managing change is most difficult process in any organisation and requires support of external forces and systematic Implementation of steps of change management. Many of improvement initiatives fail because of lack of following steps of change management.  Generally people are used to do things in a certain way, once any new method is introduced, there is resistance which is caused by various fears & some times ego.  Here are steps of managing change in your organisation:

  • Create sense of Urgency: unless a sense of urgency is generated, no one will be serious on change efforts. creating sense of urgency requires identifying gaps between current & desired situation and dealing with initial resistance. Individuals generally resist because of habits, comfort zones, job security fears & ego. Organisational resistance is caused by threat to established power structure, threat to established resource allocation.  To overcome resistance Positive of negative impacts of changing and not changing must be identified and communicated to every one
  • Create Vision of Change: A positive vision of outcome of change must be created and communicated to everyChange Management steps

    one. Positive vision covers benefits to individuals and to organisation if new methods were adopted and how it will everyone become and perform better on their roles. Vision of change should be BOLD, Positive and inspiring.

  • Develop Support Teams: to lead the change, support team must be created of people who have initially given positive response to Sense of urgency and positive vision of change. Role of support team is to help implement change across the organisation
  • Communicate & Train to change paradigms: Regular communication and trainings on changing paradigms with real life examples are key to to sowing seeds of changing the mindset.
  • Empower & Involve:  Involving team members in process of change is key to get buy in. only once people are involved, they will be able to see positive impact of change. Just telling people to follow without involving will always create a negative environment and will result in more resistance.
  • Create Short Team Wins, Reward & Recognise: Efforts of Involved team member must be appreciated and celebrated. More the appreciation of efforts, more will be the increase in adoption of change efforts.
11 09, 2017

What is Corrective & Preventive actions in Root Cause Analysis?

By | 2017-10-27T07:31:57+00:00 September 11th, 2017|Lean Kaizen|0 Comments

Corrective & Preventive actions are two most common actions identified as a part of doing a Good Why Why Analysis of 5 why analysis, which is done as part of Root Cause Analysis.

Many users & trainers on Root cause analysis do not understand the real different between corrective and preventive action.

Corrective Action: in most of the cases, what is considered as a Corrective action is actually Immediate Action or Root Cause AnalysisBand-Aid Solution.  For example: If a part is broken, replacing it with a new part is considered as corrective action, which is technically incorrect. Replacing broken part with a new part is actually a Band-Aid Solution and does not require any kind of analysis or problem solving work. Corrective action is action which will element the root cause/s of the problem within a particular equipment or particular area of problem. In simple words, once corrective action is implemented, problem should disappear from selected problem area.

Preventive Action: Preventive action is an action, which will eliminate the problem completely from entire organisation or entire area of operation. Generally corrective action is considered as preventive action, which is technically wrong. Preventive action, once implemented, will eliminate problem completely from entire organisation.

Lets take an example to understand difference between Corrective & Preventive action.  Printing machine in a Flex Printing organisation was breaking very often due to failure of gear on one of the printing roller. After Root cause analysis was done, it was identified that ink mixing with lubricants used was resulting in choking of gear, thus breakdown of the gear. Ink was splashing and getting mixed with the lubricants due to poor viscosity, which was due to no standard present or followed for maintaining ink viscosity. Lack of standard was identified as a root cause, a process was created to ensure if standard is not followed, job can not be started. Implementing the process of following this standard only one machine is called Corrective action. When same action is implemented in all printing machines within organisation, it becomes a preventive action, which will avoid problem completely in whole organisation.

Identification of Corrective & Preventive action requires following systematic process of Root Cause analysis. Using techniques like Brainstorming with team members, understanding & observing problems at Gemba makes it easier to identify Corrective and preventive actions. Each action identified should be based on data and facts, which have been thoroughly verified.

10 08, 2017

How to Implement Lean Manufacturing?

By | 2017-08-10T08:27:30+00:00 August 10th, 2017|Lean Kaizen|0 Comments

Lean Manufacturing has become very popular in India & some countries in East Africa. however implementing Lean in right way requires deep understanding of concept and philosophy behind Lean. Most of the consultants and organisation go by the Tool Implementation way, where they select few popular tools like 5S, Cells, Kanban etc and implement. Certainly there will be lot of benefits from implementation of these tools but not in long term. Because lean is not just set of tools, its way of running your business. Lets understand different approaches for Lean Manufacturing Implementation.

  • Kaizen workshops approach
  • Hot Projects approach
  • Plant wide Lean tools Implementation Approach
  • Value stream Model Line approach
  • Hoshin Kanri Approach

Lets us understand Kaizen Workshop approach in detail:Kaizen workshop

One common approach to implement Lean Kaizen is strategy of the one week kaizen event. The kaizen event structure (a.k.a. kaizen workshop, rapid improvement workshop, lean event, rapid improvement event). Kaizen workshops to be conducted are decided based on outcome of an Initial assessment, where current state is analysed, problems & opportunities are identified, Potential savings are calculated and a roadmap for Kaizen workshops is created.

Following are some more details on phases of Kaizen workshop: 

1. Prepare in advance. Two to four weeks of advanced preparation for the workshop to define the scope of the problem, decide on a team, collect data on the current situation, decide what lean tools to use, and make logistic arrangements for the event. In some cases there is advanced purchase of tools, materials, or equipment that cannot be done in the lead time of the one-week workshop.

2. Conduct workshop:

  • Monday: Give an overview of lean Kaizen and teach any special Kaizen tools needed for that week. Begin to collect data on the current process in the afternoon.
  • Tuesday: Complete the current state analysis, collect data, draw a process flow map, draw walk pattern on layout, develop Standardized Work Combination Tables, etc., and develop ideas for the improved state. Perhaps detail the future state by the end of the day (Plan).
  • Wednesday: First pass implementation (Do). It may be in one pilot, to try it first, or full implementation right away. Sometimes this starts by clearing the floor of the current process, painting the floor, then moving equipment back in the new layout.
  • Thursday: Evaluate process (Check), improve (Act), and keep going through Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) until you have a good approach.
  • Friday: Develop a presentation for management. Present to management. Celebrate. (Often the event ends after a lunch celebration.)

Follow-up to the workshop. There are always items that could not be done during the week, which are put together as a homework list sometimes called a “kaizen action plan.” An action plan for what, who, and when is prepared during the one-week workshop, and follow-up is needed to be sure the items get done.

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